Lifespan of Human Development (PS 190B)
Ch. 6 Piaget- Cognitive Development
Know Piaget’s concepts about the Origins of knowledge & the Circle of knowledge
Make sure you know the concepts of assimilation and accommodation in terms of how they relate to the circle of knowledge and scheme development.
Define and explain Schemes and how they relate to each stage of development (e.g., what type of “schemes” for viewing the world are held by people in the sensori-motor stage, in the pre-op. stage, etc.)
What can people generally “do” (cognitively) at each stage of development (i.e., at the concrete stage people have logic and rules of operation, but they are tied to concrete ideas, etc.)
Know Piaget’s Assumptions about children
What does the concept of Qualitative learning tell us about the effectiveness of “early training” with children?
Know the Characteristics of stages (e.g., invariant sequence, universal, etc.)
Know the Critique of Piaget’s theory (3 points on ppt.)
Why is it problematic to view Piaget’s stages as “universal,” esp. stage 4?
What can we take/learn from Piaget’s theory? (ppt. slide)
*Basically, know all the slides. Try to make connections between concepts; study the chapter as a whole—i.e., what is Piaget’s theory of acquiring knowledge, how do we get knowledge about the world? How do his stages represent the kind of knowledge we have about the world? What are some limitations of his theory, etc.?
Ch. 17 Chomsky + Language Article
Know Chomsky’s nativist theory of language (including the LAD, universal ear and universal grammar—and what explains universal grammar)
How did Chomsky’s theory differ from the behaviorist theories of the day?
Know the Environmental theories of language- Skinner/Bandura
Know Piaget’s interactionist theory
Know the support for Chomsky’s theory (that is, what key things support Chomsky’s theory?)
What is the Critical period and hemispheric brain specialization pertaining to language acquisition and age?
What is the significance of “Genie” in relationship to critical periods of language development? What could and couldn’t Genie do, and why?
Myths and facts of second language learning (re-familiarize yourself with the article on bilingual education)
**Be sure to read the link about plantation children and Creole and Pidgin languages in the Chomsky ppt. *This was your discussion board for week 1.
Ch. 8 Learning/Conditioning
Know the principles, characteristics, importance of classical and operant conditioning
Know the Behaviorist beliefs/philosophy of development (e.g., passive, blank slates, etc.)
In what way was behaviorism in opposition to the Eugenics movement in the U.S.?
In what way was behaviorism a reaction against Freudian psychology?
Know the Practical applications of classical conditioning (ppt. slide)
What are the practical applications of operant conditioning and behavior modification (ppt. slide)
Have some knowledge of positive and negative punishments and reinforcements (be able to come up with an example of each)
**Remember to think about the question:
How could classical conditioning be used to help enhance the nurse-patient, teacher-student, or therapist-client relationship, and/or how could it harm it?
Ch. 9 Social Learning Theory- Bandura
How does social learning theory relate to and differ from strict behaviorism?
Know the reciprocal influence model (be able to give an example of how behavior, cognitions, and the environment could have a reciprocal influence on one another)
Know the three core concepts of Bandura’s theory: observational learning; socialization (and its components); self-monitoring (i.e., self-regulation and self-efficacy)
*How did Bandura change the focus of “pathology” in psychology from the person to the environment?
What is the big take-home message from the Bobo Doll Studies? (Hint: The work of Robert Liebert, a follower of Bandura, is the key to this answer. (Bobo Doll study is outlined on pp. 208-210). Be sure you read these pages.
*How does Facebook relate to Bandura’s idea of self-monitoring?
*How might the models we observe and emulate change if socialized values would change? (Put on your critical thinking hats for this one.)