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Relative risk is the ratio in comparing the probability of the risk of diseases in the exposed individuals to the probability of the risk of the disease in the unexposed individuals. There are three ways to interpret the calculation of relative risk. The first is, if the relative risk is equal to 1, then there is no difference in whether the exposure of the disease will occur or not occur. If the relative risk is greater than 1, then it is likely that the disease will occur if the individuals are exposed. Lastly, if the relative risk is less than 1, then it is likely that there is a less chance of the diseases occurring if the individual is exposed to the diseases (Celentano& Szklo, 2019). For example, there are two groups of women, one with family members who have ovarian cancer and the other groups contain individuals who do not have any family members with ovarian cancer. If the relative risk was calculated, it would show that the group whose family had ovarian cancer, their mother, daughters, or sisters will more likely to be at risk for ovarian cancer with a relative risk greater than 1 or equal to 1. However, the individuals who did not have any family members with the ovarian risk factor will have a relative rate of less than 1.
Attributable risk is the proportion of how much of the disease risk can be attributed to a specific exposure. Attributable risk can be calculated from the difference between the exposed and unexposed (Celentano& Szklo, 2019). For example, a person developed liver diseases due to chronic drinking, however, through a genetic blood test, it showed that genetics is a factor of liver diseases. Therefore, how much of the chronic drinking really contributed to liver diseases and how much of the genetic factor contributed to the liver disease. If an attributable risk calculation is done and the results showed that 60% of the risk came from chronic drinking, then this issue can be contained or prevented by eliminating drinking from the person’s life. However, there are cases where due to complicated risk factors, environmental and genetic factors correlated together and increased the overall risk of liver disease. This is because the person has a high genetic susceptibility for liver diseases, but due to chronic drinking, they trigger the gene that activates the liver diseases. This means eliminating drinking is no longer a factor in reducing the prevalence of liver disease within the person (Lammert, 2019).
Population Attributable risk is the proportion of the disease in the population due to exposure (Celentano& Szklo, 2019). For example, a group of individuals within a community noticed an increasing level of liver disease prevalence within their community. To prevent this prevalence, they spoke to the leaders of the community asking to enforce a drinking control and prevention program within the community. However, they were asked for evidence on whether drinking was the factor in the increased liver disease prevalence within the community. To find this proof, the group of individuals had to compare the attributable risk calculation to the unexposed and exposed for the population. First, we would find the incidence of the drinkers and nondrinker, this would show how much individuals per 1000 of the total population partake or not in drinking. Then we would calculate the percentage of the incidence from liver diseases among drinkers by calculating the proportion of total incidence in the exposed from the unexposed divided by the incidence of the exposed group. This data will be evidence of whether or not the intervention program will need to be implemented.
Celentano, D. D., & Szklo, M. (2019). Gordis epidemiology (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9780323552295
Lammert, C. (2019). Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Autoimmune Hepatitis. Clinical Liver Disease, 14(1). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/cld.798
Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)
- Ask a probing question.
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- Offer and support an opinion.
- Validate an idea with your own experience.
- Make a suggestion.
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Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.
It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class
To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.
REMEMBER IN APA FORMAT JOURNAL TITLES AND VOLUME NUMBERS ARE ITALICIZED.