a) What conditions (depth, pressure, temperature, chemical composition) are necessary to make a diamond?
b)Summarize the steps that form a diamond and bring it to the surface.
c) What makes the Hope Diamond blue?
2) Cave Formation
a) Summarize the steps involved in cave formation.
b)What rock are nearly all caves made of and why?
c) Report on the size and details on a big cave somewhere in the world.
3) The Mantle
a) Describe how heat is produced inside the earth?
b) The mantle is made of the lithosphere, asthenosphere and mesosphere. What is the thickness and composition of each.
c) Are any of these layers partially melted? Explain.
d) How was the mantle discovered? Explain how we learned that it was there.
4) The Outer Core
a) How was the outer core discovered? Explain how we learned that it was there.
b) What is the outer core made of and how do we know?
c) In what way does the magnetic field generated by the outer core protect us?
5) Inner Core
a) How was the inner core discovered? Explain how we learned that it was there.
b) Who discovered it and where was this person from?
c) How many miles and kilometers is it from the earth’s surface to the center of the earth?
- What is a seismic wave?
- What is the difference between a P and an S seismic wave in terms of:
-speed (what is the speed of each in km/sec?)
-what type of material each goes through
-how each makes the material behave when it goes through it
c) Which wave goes through the outer core, P or S? And why?
d) Which wave does NOT go through the outer core, P or S? And why?